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GM24281

William I Penny, Two stars type, Norwich Mint, Moneyer Edwold

William I (1066-87),silver two stars type Penny (1074-77?), Norwich Mint, Moneyer Edwold, facing crowned bust with star each side, all within linear circle, legend commences at top with outer beaded circle surrounding both sides, +PILLEM REX IIII,rev.annulet at centre of cross bottonnee, over quadrilateral with incurved sides, +EDPOLD O NORÐPI, weight 1.31g (BMC type V 358; BNJ 1912, plate 24 No.4 this coin; N.845; S.1254).Toned, good very fine to almost extremely fine and pleasing.

The legends translate as "William King of the English" on obverse and "Edwold of Norwich" on the reverse.

This coin was illustrated during the ownership of P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton in his 1912 article "A Numismatic History of the Reigns of William I and II, part II - The History of the Mints" in the British Numismatic Journal 1912, volume 9.

North records up to 18 moneyers working at Norwich in this reign for all types.

The first Norman King of England, William the Conqueror born around 1028 was the son of Robert I of Normandy and Herleya. A descendant of Rollo, William became Duke of Normandy in 1035, he subsequently married Matilda of Flanders in the 1050s ensuring a powerful ally in that neighbouring region. After a protracted struggle and quashing rebellions, his hold over Normandy was eventually secure by 1060 and with appointment of supporting abbots and bishops in the Norman church, and he subsequently secured the region of Maine in 1062. William's first cousin once removed was the childless Edward the Confessor of England and from this family connection and that Edward had previously told him he would succeed, he assumed a claim to the throne of England over Harold Godwinson, who Edward had named as his successor on his deathbed in January 1066. William also claimed that Harold previously had promised the throne to him in the event of succession, Harold having sworn over holy relics in William's presence as depicted in the Bayeux tapestry. William therefore built up a powerful invasion force to cross the channel and fight for the right to rule England as of September 1066. He landed at Pevensey Bay and after setting up camp with a basic fort at Hastings he marched north to meet Harold at Senlac Hill at Battle, East Sussex on the 14th October. A battle raged for most of the day, with at one point a rumour spread that William was slain resulting in him having to remove his helmet and reveal he was alive and fighting, boosting the morale of the Normans for the final onslaught in which Harold perished, either from an arrow in the eye or cut down by a horseman. William then went on a military tour to put down local uprisings leading to his crowning in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day. He made arrangements in London for governance for whenever he would be in Normandy, and by 1075 his hold on England was almost complete with many forts and castles constructed. His later years involved quelling other uprisings in Europe and difficulty with his eldest son Robert Curthose, but his most famous achievement in England was the preparation of the Domesday Book in 1086; a survey of the land and the land-owners and nobles within it, listing pre-conquest and current holders at that time. William died in September 1087 leading a campaign in northern France and was buried at Caen. Normandy was given to eldest son Robert, with England given to his next surviving son William Rufus.

Norwich is situated 100 miles north north east of London in East Anglia on the River Tud near the junction with the River Yare. In 1004 it was sacked and burnt by the Danish Swein, but resisted a much later attack in 1069. The Norman knight Roger Bigod Earl of East Anglia siezed the castle in 1087 and later in 1136 during the anarchy the castle was again seized by his descendent Hugh Bigod. The holy See of the Bishop of East Anglia was transferred there from Thetford in 1094/5 he having minting rights with one moneyer at Norwich. Minting activity occurs here from the reign of Aethelstan until Henry III, except for the reign of Eadwig.

Provenance:

Ex Allabone Collection,

Ex Hyman Montagu, part V, Sotheby, 16th November 1897, lot 75 part.

Ex L. A. Lawrence, Sotheby, 24th February 1903, lot 58, sold for £2/8/-.

Ex P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton, part II, Sotheby, 20th November 1916, lot 1240 sold for £1/5/- to Baldwin, illustrated plate XXIX.

Ex Richard Cyril Lockett, English part IV, Glendining, 26th April 1960, lot 3852, sold for £12, illustrated plate VIII.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 365, 16th December 2015, lot 518.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Review XLVI, Winter 2020, item 525011.

Ex Collection of an English Doctor part II, Sovereign Rarities fixed price list online May 2022.

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