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GM24402

Henry V Halfpenny, type F, London Mint, trefoil and broken annulet by crown

Henry V (1413-22), silver Halfpenny, London Mint, type F, facing crowned portrait, trefoil to left and broken annulet to right of crown, beaded circles and legend surrounding, initial mark pierced cross, hEnRIC'x REXxx AnGL', rev. long cross pattee, trio of pellets in each angle, annulet at centre of two opposing trios, CIVI TAS LOn DOn, weight 0.42g (Withers 11; N.1411; S.1796). Dark tone, some ghosting of reverse cross onto obverse, otherwise a bold very fine.

The Latin legends translate as "Henry, King of the English" on the obverse, and on the reverse "City of London."

Henry of Monmouth as he was known until he became king was born on the 13th September 1386 at Monmouth Castle, and gained valuable military experience in what became a 15 year long revolt by the Welsh under Owen "Glendower" from 16th September 1400, as well as against the Percy Family at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21st July 1403 where "Harry Hotspur" the Lord Percy of Northumberland who was killed by an arrow to the face. Henry acceded to the throne from his ailing Father on 21st March 1413 and reasserted the English claim to the French throne and in 1415 embarked on war with France, which culminated in the Battle of Agincourt on the 25th October of that year, in an unexpected and resounding victory for the English with an army led by Henry consisting of some 80% long bowmen. This great victory against all the odds resulted in the occupation of Normandy and after long negotiation with King Charles VI, led to the Treaty of Troyes where Henry V was named regent and given the hand in marriage of Charles' daughter Catherine of Valois. They had one son Henry who succeeded his Father as an infant King upon the death of Henry aged just 35 after his falling ill around May to June of 1422, and after some rallying finally succumbing to whatever fever it was on 31st August 1422. Henry's reign was also notable for the adaption of the English language in all governance from August of 1417.

Capital City London upon the River Thames following Roman occupation, minted some of the earliest Saxon coins with gold Thrymsas and silver denarii with a "Londuniu" signature. Mercian Kings beginning with Offa minted coins there, but the first coin to actually say City of London upon it is the unique Ludica portrait Penny that was found in 2016, followed by subsequent coins of Ecgberht. In 871 the Danes wintered in London for the first time but was King Alfred of Wessex who settled and fortified the capital circa 880 to resist further invasions. Edward the Elder incorporated the City in Wessex in 911 and it resisted a major attack in the reign of Aethelred II in 1009. However, London submitted to the Danish Swein in 1013, but three years later the citizens accepted Eadmund Ironside as King and resisted a siege by Canute.

Later unsettled times occurred in the anarchy period of the reign of King Stephen, remaining loyal to the King except for a few months in 1141 when Empress Matilda was admitted but within a short time expelled. Coinage activity here has been mostly constant throughout history from the Romans until the reign of our current Queen and only moving out to Wales from 1969.

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