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GM24349

Henry III Long cross Penny, type 3ab, Carlisle Mint, moneyer Robert

Henry III (1216-72), silver Penny, voided long cross type, Phase II (1248-50), class 3ab (c.1248), Carlisle Mint, moneyer Robert, neat facing crowned head, legend commences at top with inner and outer beaded border surrounding, initial mark six pointed star, +hENRICVS REX. III', rev. long voided cross pommée, trio of pellets in each angle, legend surrounding with inner and outer beaded border, ROBERT ON CARL, some letters ligatured, weight 1.34g (N.986/1; S.1362B). Toned, very fine, reverse bolder.

The legend reads "King Henry the Third" on the obverse and "Robert on Carlisle" on the reverse.

In an effort to curtail clipping of the edges if coins, Henry III was the first to introduce a coinage where the reverse cross extended to towards the rim of the coin so any tampering of the edge would be more obvious to the casual observer. The new design having a voided cross pommée with groups of three pellets in each inner angle. The coinage running for a 32 year period from 1247 until 1279 in the reign of Edward I.

Nine year old Henry who was born on 1st October 1207 succeeded his Father under the protection of William Marshall on 28th October 1216 with a coronation at Gloucester Cathedral and who reintroduced the terms of the Magna Carta from 1217, after quelling the Baron's rebellion at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich, under which all future government was based.

At age 18 in 1225 Henry agreed to abide by the Great Charter which was a later version of the Magna Carta limiting Royal power and protecting the barons. Henry was also Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine and attempted to regain lands in France in 1230 to no avail. A revolt in 1232 by Richard Marshall the son of William was ended by a peace settlement with interaction from the church. Henry preferred to home rule and married Eleanor of Provence in 1236 with whom he had five children, the eldest being the future King Edward I. He was known for piety and charity and adopted Edward the Confessor as his patron saint. He did try invading Poitou in 1242 but suffered defeat at the Battle of Taillebourg and by 1258 his rule at home was becoming unpopular over foreign policy and taxes. A coalition of barons seized power expelling Henry's Poitevin half-brothers and reforming government with the Provisions of Oxford. Henry with the baronial government enacted peace with France in 1259 giving up lands in France in exchange for Louis IX recognising him as ruler of Gascony, but instability later continued. In 1263 the baron Simon De Montfort seized power resulting in a second Baron's War with Henry receiving support from Louis and culminating in the Battle of Lewes in 1264 where Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henry's sone Prince Edward came to the rescue by defeating De Montfort killing him at the Battle of Evesham in 1265 and freed King Henry. Henry wanted to exact revenge on the rebels but was persuaded by the church through the Dictum of Kenilworth of 31st October 1266 to take a less harder line and reconcile. Henry died after recurring illness on 16th November 1272 after the longest Medieval reign in English history and is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Some sixty miles west of Newcastle, the City of Carlisle on the River Eden was devastated by the Danes in 875 and in ruins until 1092 when William II fortified it by building a castle. The silver and lead mines on nearby Alston Moor were used to supply the mint with metal during the twelfth century and a Bishopric was established in 1133. David of Scotland seized the town on the accession of Stephen but later in the Peace of Durham, was confirmed to his son Henry. In 1139 the town was ceded with his Earldom of Northumbria to the Scottish crown and not restored to the English till 1157. Minting activity occurs from Henry I to Henry III with issues of David of Scotland and Henry of Northumbria.

Provenance:

Ex John Mattinson Collection of Carlisle Mint, part I, Dix Noonan and Webb, Auction 164, 9th October 2019, lot 2258.

Ex Collection of an English Doctor part III, Sovereign Rarities fixed price list online August 2022.

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