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GM25840

Henry I Penny, pellets in quatrefoil type, Twynham Mint, moneyer Tovi

Regular price £7,500
Regular price Sale price £7,500

Henry I (1100-35), silver Penny, pellets in quatrefoil type XIV (c.1123-25), Twynham Mint (Christchurch), moneyer Tovi, facing bust of King with sceptre, sexfoil above shoulder, beaded circles and legend surrounding, hENRICVS R:, rev.pellets within quatrefoil with tri-annulet terminals, lis in each angle, beaded circles and legend surrounding, +TOVI: ON: TV--AM:, weight 1.30g (SCBI 11a:212 Reading; Mack 20:1552; BMC XIV, 183; N.870; S.1275).Toned, struck a touch off-centre with some weakness in legends, with edge snick, very fine and extremely rare.

The legend translates as on obverse "Henry King" and on reverse "Tovi of Twynham."

North records up to threemoneyers working at Christchurch for Henry I in types 2, 7 and 14 only.

The fourth son of William the Conqueror, the "fine scholar" Henry Beauclerc as he was known acceded to the throne of England on the death of his childless elder brother William Rufus, who died after a hunting accident in the New Forest on 2ndAugust 1100. Well educated Henry had been left landless when his Father died with the Kingdoms shared between the two eldest surviving brothers Robert and William, though he did purchase the county of Cotentin from his eldest brother Robert in western Normandy, but was later deposed from there in 1091, and subsequently, gradually rebuilt his power there with the help of elder brother William against Robert. Upon the death of William Rufus, and being present in the area at that time, he immediately became King promising to correct the less popular policies of his late brother. Henry married Matilda of Scotland with whom he had a son William Aethling and a daughter the Empress Matilda, as well as various other illegitimate children. His elder brother Robert invaded in 1101 disputing Henry's control, but this was settled by a pact recognising Henry as King of England. Henry later invaded Normandy in 1105 and 1106 defeating Robert eventually in the Battle of Tinchebray imprisoning his brother until his death on 3rdFebruary 1134 in Cardiff Castle. Henry then controlled Normandy for which he was subsequently challenged by Robert's son William Clito who was supported by Fulk V of Anjou, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Louis VI of France, resulting in major rebellions within the Duchy from 1116-19. Eventually a peace settlement was agreed in 1120 after Henry's victory at the Battle of Bremule.

Henry was an effective leader who drew his nobles and barons close whilst using the government justice and taxation systems to the best effect boosting the Royal Exchequer, along with Normandy and its own independent system. He also encouraged ecclesiastical reform playing a major role in selecting senior clergy, though he did have a serious earlier dispute with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury in 1101 eventually resolved through a compromise in 1105. Unfortunately, Henry's son and heir apparent William drowned in the White Ship sinking disaster of 1120 and Henry entered a second marriage in the hope of another son, but the union with Adeliza of Louvain remained childless. He therefore declared Matilda his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou in 1128 but the relationship between them all became strained with fighting along the Anjou border. Henry subsequently died on 1stDecember 1135 after a week of illness and despite his plan for succession it was Stephen of Blois his nephew that succeeded him which led to a Civil War.

Christchurch formerly known as Twynham is a port at the confluence of the Rivers Avon and Stour just over 25 miles south west of Southampton near Bournemouth seems to have started life as a ninth century earthwork which is mentioned in the Burghal Hidage. The town was granted to Richard de Redvers in 1101 who fortified it with a castle and was later renamed Christchurch from the priory of the Holy Trinity there.

Provenance:

Ex Captain Ronald D. Wills, Glendining, 6th December 1938, lot 388 and plate IX, sold for £5. With ticket in the hand of Elmore-Jones saying there is one other in private hands ex Carlyon-Britton and Mack.

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